When I planted my peas a couple of weeks ago I also planted some fava beans. Now fava beans are a sort of Italian delicacy, but I’m too lazy to eat and grow fava beans because they need a lot of shelling. The reason I planted fava beans is to use them as a cover crop or “green manure” crop. When the fava beans grow up a bit and I’m ready to plant something else I will turn the not yet fully grown bean plants into the soil where they will break down and enrich it.
Cover crops can be particularly important if you have a small garden or weed problems. I have a terrible problem with crab grass so I’m hoping that by planting fava beans I will be reducing the growth of the crab grass because the fava beans will grow up and compete for light. If you have a small garden like I do you can never get too many organic fertilizers. I make compost for my garden, but I don’t have a lot of time or money to spend collecting or buy soil additives for my garden. A “green manure” crops enrich the soil in a similar way to animal manures.
If you have the time and the space I would highly recommend keeping some small animals to produce manure for your garden. Rabbits or chickens can be good sources of manure. Even if you just have a child with a small animal pet like a guinea pig or a hamster you can add that bedding to your compost pile. However, if you are like me and live in an apartment or don’t have the time to commit to keeping animals, green manure crops are a great option for improving your soil.